Math.floor und andere Funktionen die POSIX exportiert

POSIX importiert eine Vielzahl an Funktionen

NAME
    POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

SYNOPSIS
        use POSIX ();
        use POSIX qw(setsid);
        use POSIX qw(:errno_h :fcntl_h);

        printf "EINTR is %d\n", EINTR;

        $sess_id = POSIX::setsid();

        $fd = POSIX::open($path, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_WRONLY, 0644);
            # note: that's a filedescriptor, *NOT* a filehandle

DESCRIPTION
    The POSIX module permits you to access all (or nearly all) the standard
    POSIX 1003.1 identifiers. Many of these identifiers have been given
    Perl-ish interfaces.

    *Everything is exported by default* with the exception of any POSIX
    functions with the same name as a built-in Perl function, such as "abs",
    "alarm", "rmdir", "write", etc.., which will be exported only if you ask
    for them explicitly. This is an unfortunate backwards compatibility
    feature. You can stop the exporting by saying "use POSIX ()" and then
    use the fully qualified names (ie. "POSIX::SEEK_END"), or by giving an
    explicit import list. If you do neither, and opt for the default, "use
    POSIX;" has to import *553 symbols*.

    This document gives a condensed list of the features available in the
    POSIX module. Consult your operating system's manpages for general
    information on most features. Consult perlfunc for functions which are
    noted as being identical to Perl's builtin functions.

    The first section describes POSIX functions from the 1003.1
    specification. The second section describes some classes for signal
    objects, TTY objects, and other miscellaneous objects. The remaining
    sections list various constants and macros in an organization which
    roughly follows IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993.

CAVEATS
    A few functions are not implemented because they are C specific. If you
    attempt to call these, they will print a message telling you that they
    aren't implemented, and suggest using the Perl equivalent should one
    exist. For example, trying to access the setjmp() call will elicit the
    message "setjmp() is C-specific: use eval {} instead".

    Furthermore, some evil vendors will claim 1003.1 compliance, but in fact
    are not so: they will not pass the PCTS (POSIX Compliance Test Suites).
    For example, one vendor may not define EDEADLK, or the semantics of the
    errno values set by open(2) might not be quite right. Perl does not
    attempt to verify POSIX compliance. That means you can currently
    successfully say "use POSIX", and then later in your program you find
    that your vendor has been lax and there's no usable ICANON macro after
    all. This could be construed to be a bug.

FUNCTIONS
    _exit   This is identical to the C function "_exit()". It exits the
            program immediately which means among other things buffered I/O
            is not flushed.

            Note that when using threads and in Linux this is not a good way
            to exit a thread because in Linux processes and threads are kind
            of the same thing (Note: while this is the situation in early
            2003 there are projects under way to have threads with more
            POSIXly semantics in Linux). If you want not to return from a
            thread, detach the thread.

    abort   This is identical to the C function "abort()". It terminates the
            process with a "SIGABRT" signal unless caught by a signal
            handler or if the handler does not return normally (it e.g. does
            a "longjmp").

    abs     This is identical to Perl's builtin "abs()" function, returning
            the absolute value of its numerical argument.

    access  Determines the accessibility of a file.

                    if( POSIX::access( "/", &POSIX::R_OK ) ){
                            print "have read permission\n";
                    }

            Returns "undef" on failure. Note: do not use "access()" for
            security purposes. Between the "access()" call and the operation
            you are preparing for the permissions might change: a classic
            *race condition*.

    acos    This is identical to the C function "acos()", returning the
            arcus cosine of its numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.

    alarm   This is identical to Perl's builtin "alarm()" function, either
            for arming or disarming the "SIGARLM" timer.

    asctime This is identical to the C function "asctime()". It returns a
            string of the form

                    "Fri Jun  2 18:22:13 2000\n\0"

            and it is called thusly

                    $asctime = asctime($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year,
                                       $wday, $yday, $isdst);

            The $mon is zero-based: January equals 0. The $year is
            1900-based: 2001 equals 101. $wday and $yday default to zero
            (and are usually ignored anyway), and $isdst defaults to -1.

    asin    This is identical to the C function "asin()", returning the
            arcus sine of its numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.

    assert  Unimplemented, but you can use "die" in perlfunc and the Carp
            module to achieve similar things.

    atan    This is identical to the C function "atan()", returning the
            arcus tangent of its numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.

    atan2   This is identical to Perl's builtin "atan2()" function,
            returning the arcus tangent defined by its two numerical
            arguments, the *y* coordinate and the *x* coordinate. See also
            Math::Trig.

    atexit  atexit() is C-specific: use "END {}" instead, see perlsub.

    atof    atof() is C-specific. Perl converts strings to numbers
            transparently. If you need to force a scalar to a number, add a
            zero to it.

    atoi    atoi() is C-specific. Perl converts strings to numbers
            transparently. If you need to force a scalar to a number, add a
            zero to it. If you need to have just the integer part, see "int"
            in perlfunc.

    atol    atol() is C-specific. Perl converts strings to numbers
            transparently. If you need to force a scalar to a number, add a
            zero to it. If you need to have just the integer part, see "int"
            in perlfunc.

    bsearch bsearch() not supplied. For doing binary search on wordlists,
            see Search::Dict.

    calloc  calloc() is C-specific. Perl does memory management
            transparently.

    ceil    This is identical to the C function "ceil()", returning the
            smallest integer value greater than or equal to the given
            numerical argument.

    chdir   This is identical to Perl's builtin "chdir()" function, allowing
            one to change the working (default) directory, see "chdir" in
            perlfunc.

    chmod   This is identical to Perl's builtin "chmod()" function, allowing
            one to change file and directory permissions, see "chmod" in
            perlfunc.

    chown   This is identical to Perl's builtin "chown()" function, allowing
            one to change file and directory owners and groups, see "chown"
            in perlfunc.

    clearerr
            Use the method "IO::Handle::clearerr()" instead, to reset the
            error state (if any) and EOF state (if any) of the given stream.

    clock   This is identical to the C function "clock()", returning the
            amount of spent processor time in microseconds.

    close   Close the file. This uses file descriptors such as those
            obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                    POSIX::close( $fd );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

            See also "close" in perlfunc.

    closedir
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "closedir()" function for
            closing a directory handle, see "closedir" in perlfunc.

    cos     This is identical to Perl's builtin "cos()" function, for
            returning the cosine of its numerical argument, see "cos" in
            perlfunc. See also Math::Trig.

    cosh    This is identical to the C function "cosh()", for returning the
            hyperbolic cosine of its numeric argument. See also Math::Trig.

    creat   Create a new file. This returns a file descriptor like the ones
            returned by "POSIX::open". Use "POSIX::close" to close the file.

                    $fd = POSIX::creat( "foo", 0611 );
                    POSIX::close( $fd );

            See also "sysopen" in perlfunc and its "O_CREAT" flag.

    ctermid Generates the path name for the controlling terminal.

                    $path = POSIX::ctermid();

    ctime   This is identical to the C function "ctime()" and equivalent to
            "asctime(localtime(...))", see "asctime" and "localtime".

    cuserid Get the login name of the owner of the current process.

                    $name = POSIX::cuserid();

    difftime
            This is identical to the C function "difftime()", for returning
            the time difference (in seconds) between two times (as returned
            by "time()"), see "time".

    div     div() is C-specific, use "int" in perlfunc on the usual "/"
            division and the modulus "%".

    dup     This is similar to the C function "dup()", for duplicating a
            file descriptor.

            This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling
            "POSIX::open".

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    dup2    This is similar to the C function "dup2()", for duplicating a
            file descriptor to an another known file descriptor.

            This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling
            "POSIX::open".

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    errno   Returns the value of errno.

                    $errno = POSIX::errno();

            This identical to the numerical values of the $!, see "$ERRNO"
            in perlvar.

    execl   execl() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

    execle  execle() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

    execlp  execlp() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

    execv   execv() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

    execve  execve() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

    execvp  execvp() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

    exit    This is identical to Perl's builtin "exit()" function for
            exiting the program, see "exit" in perlfunc.

    exp     This is identical to Perl's builtin "exp()" function for
            returning the exponent (*e*-based) of the numerical argument,
            see "exp" in perlfunc.

    fabs    This is identical to Perl's builtin "abs()" function for
            returning the absolute value of the numerical argument, see
            "abs" in perlfunc.

    fclose  Use method "IO::Handle::close()" instead, or see "close" in
            perlfunc.

    fcntl   This is identical to Perl's builtin "fcntl()" function, see
            "fcntl" in perlfunc.

    fdopen  Use method "IO::Handle::new_from_fd()" instead, or see "open" in
            perlfunc.

    feof    Use method "IO::Handle::eof()" instead, or see "eof" in
            perlfunc.

    ferror  Use method "IO::Handle::error()" instead.

    fflush  Use method "IO::Handle::flush()" instead. See also
            "$OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH" in perlvar.

    fgetc   Use method "IO::Handle::getc()" instead, or see "read" in
            perlfunc.

    fgetpos Use method "IO::Seekable::getpos()" instead, or see "seek" in
            perlfunc.

    fgets   Use method "IO::Handle::gets()" instead. Similar to <>, also
            known as "readline" in perlfunc.

    fileno  Use method "IO::Handle::fileno()" instead, or see "fileno" in
            perlfunc.

    floor   This is identical to the C function "floor()", returning the
            largest integer value less than or equal to the numerical
            argument.

    fmod    This is identical to the C function "fmod()".

                    $r = fmod($x, $y);

            It returns the remainder "$r = $x - $n*$y", where "$n =
            trunc($x/$y)". The $r has the same sign as $x and magnitude
            (absolute value) less than the magnitude of $y.

    fopen   Use method "IO::File::open()" instead, or see "open" in
            perlfunc.

    fork    This is identical to Perl's builtin "fork()" function for
            duplicating the current process, see "fork" in perlfunc and
            perlfork if you are in Windows.

    fpathconf
            Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or
            directory. This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by
            calling "POSIX::open".

            The following will determine the maximum length of the longest
            allowable pathname on the filesystem which holds "/var/foo".

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "/var/foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                    $path_max = POSIX::fpathconf( $fd, &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    fprintf fprintf() is C-specific, see "printf" in perlfunc instead.

    fputc   fputc() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

    fputs   fputs() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

    fread   fread() is C-specific, see "read" in perlfunc instead.

    free    free() is C-specific. Perl does memory management transparently.

    freopen freopen() is C-specific, see "open" in perlfunc instead.

    frexp   Return the mantissa and exponent of a floating-point number.

                    ($mantissa, $exponent) = POSIX::frexp( 1.234e56 );

    fscanf  fscanf() is C-specific, use <> and regular expressions instead.

    fseek   Use method "IO::Seekable::seek()" instead, or see "seek" in
            perlfunc.

    fsetpos Use method "IO::Seekable::setpos()" instead, or seek "seek" in
            perlfunc.

    fstat   Get file status. This uses file descriptors such as those
            obtained by calling "POSIX::open". The data returned is
            identical to the data from Perl's builtin "stat" function.

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                    @stats = POSIX::fstat( $fd );

    fsync   Use method "IO::Handle::sync()" instead.

    ftell   Use method "IO::Seekable::tell()" instead, or see "tell" in
            perlfunc.

    fwrite  fwrite() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

    getc    This is identical to Perl's builtin "getc()" function, see
            "getc" in perlfunc.

    getchar Returns one character from STDIN. Identical to Perl's "getc()",
            see "getc" in perlfunc.

    getcwd  Returns the name of the current working directory. See also Cwd.

    getegid Returns the effective group identifier. Similar to Perl' s
            builtin variable $(, see "$EGID" in perlvar.

    getenv  Returns the value of the specified environment variable. The
            same information is available through the %ENV array.

    geteuid Returns the effective user identifier. Identical to Perl's
            builtin $> variable, see "$EUID" in perlvar.

    getgid  Returns the user's real group identifier. Similar to Perl's
            builtin variable $), see "$GID" in perlvar.

    getgrgid
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "getgrgid()" function for
            returning group entries by group identifiers, see "getgrgid" in
            perlfunc.

    getgrnam
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "getgrnam()" function for
            returning group entries by group names, see "getgrnam" in
            perlfunc.

    getgroups
            Returns the ids of the user's supplementary groups. Similar to
            Perl's builtin variable $), see "$GID" in perlvar.

    getlogin
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "getlogin()" function for
            returning the user name associated with the current session, see
            "getlogin" in perlfunc.

    getpgrp This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpgrp()" function for
            returning the process group identifier of the current process,
            see "getpgrp" in perlfunc.

    getpid  Returns the process identifier. Identical to Perl's builtin
            variable $$, see "$PID" in perlvar.

    getppid This is identical to Perl's builtin "getppid()" function for
            returning the process identifier of the parent process of the
            current process , see "getppid" in perlfunc.

    getpwnam
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpwnam()" function for
            returning user entries by user names, see "getpwnam" in
            perlfunc.

    getpwuid
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpwuid()" function for
            returning user entries by user identifiers, see "getpwuid" in
            perlfunc.

    gets    Returns one line from "STDIN", similar to <>, also known as the
            "readline()" function, see "readline" in perlfunc.

            NOTE: if you have C programs that still use "gets()", be very
            afraid. The "gets()" function is a source of endless grief
            because it has no buffer overrun checks. It should never be
            used. The "fgets()" function should be preferred instead.

    getuid  Returns the user's identifier. Identical to Perl's builtin $<
            variable, see "$UID" in perlvar.

    gmtime  This is identical to Perl's builtin "gmtime()" function for
            converting seconds since the epoch to a date in Greenwich Mean
            Time, see "gmtime" in perlfunc.

    isalnum This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isalnum".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:alnum:]]/"
            construct instead, or possibly the "/\w/" construct.

    isalpha This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isalpha".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:alpha:]]/"
            construct instead.

    isatty  Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified filehandle is
            connected to a tty. Similar to the "-t" operator, see "-X" in
            perlfunc.

    iscntrl This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "iscntrl".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:cntrl:]]/"
            construct instead.

    isdigit This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isdigit"
            (unlikely, but still possible). Does not work on Unicode
            characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular
            expressions and the "/[[:digit:]]/" construct instead, or the
            "/\d/" construct.

    isgraph This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isgraph".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:graph:]]/"
            construct instead.

    islower This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "islower".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:lower:]]/"
            construct instead. Do not use "/[a-z]/".

    isprint This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isprint".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:print:]]/"
            construct instead.

    ispunct This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "ispunct".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:punct:]]/"
            construct instead.

    isspace This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isspace".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:space:]]/"
            construct instead, or the "/\s/" construct. (Note that "/\s/"
            and "/[[:space:]]/" are slightly different in that
            "/[[:space:]]/" can normally match a vertical tab, while "/\s/"
            does not.)

    isupper This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isupper".
            Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.
            Consider using regular expressions and the "/[[:upper:]]/"
            construct instead. Do not use "/[A-Z]/".

    isxdigit
            This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Note that locale
            settings may affect what characters are considered "isxdigit"
            (unlikely, but still possible). Does not work on Unicode
            characters code point 256 or higher. Consider using regular
            expressions and the "/[[:xdigit:]]/" construct instead, or
            simply "/[0-9a-f]/i".

    kill    This is identical to Perl's builtin "kill()" function for
            sending signals to processes (often to terminate them), see
            "kill" in perlfunc.

    labs    (For returning absolute values of long integers.) labs() is
            C-specific, see "abs" in perlfunc instead.

    lchown  This is identical to the C function, except the order of
            arguments is consistent with Perl's builtin "chown()" with the
            added restriction of only one path, not an list of paths. Does
            the same thing as the "chown()" function but changes the owner
            of a symbolic link instead of the file the symbolic link points
            to.

    ldexp   This is identical to the C function "ldexp()" for multiplying
            floating point numbers with powers of two.

                    $x_quadrupled = POSIX::ldexp($x, 2);

    ldiv    (For computing dividends of long integers.) ldiv() is
            C-specific, use "/" and "int()" instead.

    link    This is identical to Perl's builtin "link()" function for
            creating hard links into files, see "link" in perlfunc.

    localeconv
            Get numeric formatting information. Returns a reference to a
            hash containing the current locale formatting values.

            Here is how to query the database for the de (Deutsch or German)
            locale.

                    $loc = POSIX::setlocale( &POSIX::LC_ALL, "de" );
                    print "Locale = $loc\n";
                    $lconv = POSIX::localeconv();
                    print "decimal_point    = ", $lconv->{decimal_point},   "\n";
                    print "thousands_sep    = ", $lconv->{thousands_sep},   "\n";
                    print "grouping = ", $lconv->{grouping},        "\n";
                    print "int_curr_symbol  = ", $lconv->{int_curr_symbol}, "\n";
                    print "currency_symbol  = ", $lconv->{currency_symbol}, "\n";
                    print "mon_decimal_point = ", $lconv->{mon_decimal_point}, "\n";
                    print "mon_thousands_sep = ", $lconv->{mon_thousands_sep}, "\n";
                    print "mon_grouping     = ", $lconv->{mon_grouping},    "\n";
                    print "positive_sign    = ", $lconv->{positive_sign},   "\n";
                    print "negative_sign    = ", $lconv->{negative_sign},   "\n";
                    print "int_frac_digits  = ", $lconv->{int_frac_digits}, "\n";
                    print "frac_digits      = ", $lconv->{frac_digits},     "\n";
                    print "p_cs_precedes    = ", $lconv->{p_cs_precedes},   "\n";
                    print "p_sep_by_space   = ", $lconv->{p_sep_by_space},  "\n";
                    print "n_cs_precedes    = ", $lconv->{n_cs_precedes},   "\n";
                    print "n_sep_by_space   = ", $lconv->{n_sep_by_space},  "\n";
                    print "p_sign_posn      = ", $lconv->{p_sign_posn},     "\n";
                    print "n_sign_posn      = ", $lconv->{n_sign_posn},     "\n";

    localtime
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "localtime()" function for
            converting seconds since the epoch to a date see "localtime" in
            perlfunc.

    log     This is identical to Perl's builtin "log()" function, returning
            the natural (*e*-based) logarithm of the numerical argument, see
            "log" in perlfunc.

    log10   This is identical to the C function "log10()", returning the
            10-base logarithm of the numerical argument. You can also use

                sub log10 { log($_[0]) / log(10) }

            or

                sub log10 { log($_[0]) / 2.30258509299405 }

            or

                sub log10 { log($_[0]) * 0.434294481903252 }

    longjmp longjmp() is C-specific: use "die" in perlfunc instead.

    lseek   Move the file's read/write position. This uses file descriptors
            such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                    $off_t = POSIX::lseek( $fd, 0, &POSIX::SEEK_SET );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    malloc  malloc() is C-specific. Perl does memory management
            transparently.

    mblen   This is identical to the C function "mblen()". Perl does not
            have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C
            standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

    mbstowcs
            This is identical to the C function "mbstowcs()". Perl does not
            have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C
            standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

    mbtowc  This is identical to the C function "mbtowc()". Perl does not
            have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C
            standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

    memchr  memchr() is C-specific, see "index" in perlfunc instead.

    memcmp  memcmp() is C-specific, use "eq" instead, see perlop.

    memcpy  memcpy() is C-specific, use "=", see perlop, or see "substr" in
            perlfunc.

    memmove memmove() is C-specific, use "=", see perlop, or see "substr" in
            perlfunc.

    memset  memset() is C-specific, use "x" instead, see perlop.

    mkdir   This is identical to Perl's builtin "mkdir()" function for
            creating directories, see "mkdir" in perlfunc.

    mkfifo  This is similar to the C function "mkfifo()" for creating FIFO
            special files.

                    if (mkfifo($path, $mode)) { ....

            Returns "undef" on failure. The $mode is similar to the mode of
            "mkdir()", see "mkdir" in perlfunc, though for "mkfifo" you must
            specify the $mode.

    mktime  Convert date/time info to a calendar time.

            Synopsis:

                    mktime(sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = 0, yday = 0, isdst = -1)

            The month ("mon"), weekday ("wday"), and yearday ("yday") begin
            at zero. I.e. January is 0, not 1; Sunday is 0, not 1; January
            1st is 0, not 1. The year ("year") is given in years since 1900.
            I.e. The year 1995 is 95; the year 2001 is 101. Consult your
            system's "mktime()" manpage for details about these and the
            other arguments.

            Calendar time for December 12, 1995, at 10:30 am.

                    $time_t = POSIX::mktime( 0, 30, 10, 12, 11, 95 );
                    print "Date = ", POSIX::ctime($time_t);

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    modf    Return the integral and fractional parts of a floating-point
            number.

                    ($fractional, $integral) = POSIX::modf( 3.14 );

    nice    This is similar to the C function "nice()", for changing the
            scheduling preference of the current process. Positive arguments
            mean more polite process, negative values more needy process.
            Normal user processes can only be more polite.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    offsetof
            offsetof() is C-specific, you probably want to see "pack" in
            perlfunc instead.

    open    Open a file for reading for writing. This returns file
            descriptors, not Perl filehandles. Use "POSIX::close" to close
            the file.

            Open a file read-only with mode 0666.

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo" );

            Open a file for read and write.

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDWR );

            Open a file for write, with truncation.

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY | &POSIX::O_TRUNC );

            Create a new file with mode 0640. Set up the file for writing.

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_CREAT | &POSIX::O_WRONLY, 0640 );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

            See also "sysopen" in perlfunc.

    opendir Open a directory for reading.

                    $dir = POSIX::opendir( "/var" );
                    @files = POSIX::readdir( $dir );
                    POSIX::closedir( $dir );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    pathconf
            Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or
            directory.

            The following will determine the maximum length of the longest
            allowable pathname on the filesystem which holds "/var".

                    $path_max = POSIX::pathconf( "/var", &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    pause   This is similar to the C function "pause()", which suspends the
            execution of the current process until a signal is received.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    perror  This is identical to the C function "perror()", which outputs to
            the standard error stream the specified message followed by ": "
            and the current error string. Use the "warn()" function and the
            $! variable instead, see "warn" in perlfunc and "$ERRNO" in
            perlvar.

    pipe    Create an interprocess channel. This returns file descriptors
            like those returned by "POSIX::open".

                    my ($read, $write) = POSIX::pipe();
                    POSIX::write( $write, "hello", 5 );
                    POSIX::read( $read, $buf, 5 );

            See also "pipe" in perlfunc.

    pow     Computes $x raised to the power $exponent.

                    $ret = POSIX::pow( $x, $exponent );

            You can also use the "**" operator, see perlop.

    printf  Formats and prints the specified arguments to STDOUT. See also
            "printf" in perlfunc.

    putc    putc() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

    putchar putchar() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

    puts    puts() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

    qsort   qsort() is C-specific, see "sort" in perlfunc instead.

    raise   Sends the specified signal to the current process. See also
            "kill" in perlfunc and the $$ in "$PID" in perlvar.

    rand    "rand()" is non-portable, see "rand" in perlfunc instead.

    read    Read from a file. This uses file descriptors such as those
            obtained by calling "POSIX::open". If the buffer $buf is not
            large enough for the read then Perl will extend it to make room
            for the request.

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                    $bytes = POSIX::read( $fd, $buf, 3 );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

            See also "sysread" in perlfunc.

    readdir This is identical to Perl's builtin "readdir()" function for
            reading directory entries, see "readdir" in perlfunc.

    realloc realloc() is C-specific. Perl does memory management
            transparently.

    remove  This is identical to Perl's builtin "unlink()" function for
            removing files, see "unlink" in perlfunc.

    rename  This is identical to Perl's builtin "rename()" function for
            renaming files, see "rename" in perlfunc.

    rewind  Seeks to the beginning of the file.

    rewinddir
            This is identical to Perl's builtin "rewinddir()" function for
            rewinding directory entry streams, see "rewinddir" in perlfunc.

    rmdir   This is identical to Perl's builtin "rmdir()" function for
            removing (empty) directories, see "rmdir" in perlfunc.

    scanf   scanf() is C-specific, use <> and regular expressions instead,
            see perlre.

    setgid  Sets the real group identifier and the effective group
            identifier for this process. Similar to assigning a value to the
            Perl's builtin $) variable, see "$EGID" in perlvar, except that
            the latter will change only the real user identifier, and that
            the setgid() uses only a single numeric argument, as opposed to
            a space-separated list of numbers.

    setjmp  "setjmp()" is C-specific: use "eval {}" instead, see "eval" in
            perlfunc.

    setlocale
            Modifies and queries program's locale. The following examples
            assume

                    use POSIX qw(setlocale LC_ALL LC_CTYPE);

            has been issued.

            The following will set the traditional UNIX system locale
            behavior (the second argument "C").

                    $loc = setlocale( LC_ALL, "C" );

            The following will query the current LC_CTYPE category. (No
            second argument means 'query'.)

                    $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE );

            The following will set the LC_CTYPE behaviour according to the
            locale environment variables (the second argument ""). Please
            see your systems setlocale(3) documentation for the locale
            environment variables' meaning or consult perllocale.

                    $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE, "" );

            The following will set the LC_COLLATE behaviour to Argentinian
            Spanish. NOTE: The naming and availability of locales depends on
            your operating system. Please consult perllocale for how to find
            out which locales are available in your system.

                    $loc = setlocale( LC_COLLATE, "es_AR.ISO8859-1" );

    setpgid This is similar to the C function "setpgid()" for setting the
            process group identifier of the current process.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    setsid  This is identical to the C function "setsid()" for setting the
            session identifier of the current process.

    setuid  Sets the real user identifier and the effective user identifier
            for this process. Similar to assigning a value to the Perl's
            builtin $< variable, see "$UID" in perlvar, except that the
            latter will change only the real user identifier.

    sigaction
            Detailed signal management. This uses "POSIX::SigAction" objects
            for the "action" and "oldaction" arguments (the oldaction can
            also be just a hash reference). Consult your system's
            "sigaction" manpage for details, see also "POSIX::SigRt".

            Synopsis:

                    sigaction(signal, action, oldaction = 0)

            Returns "undef" on failure. The "signal" must be a number (like
            SIGHUP), not a string (like "SIGHUP"), though Perl does try hard
            to understand you.

            If you use the SA_SIGINFO flag, the signal handler will in
            addition to the first argument, the signal name, also receive a
            second argument, a hash reference, inside which are the
            following keys with the following semantics, as defined by
            POSIX/SUSv3:

                signo       the signal number
                errno       the error number
                code        if this is zero or less, the signal was sent by
                            a user process and the uid and pid make sense,
                            otherwise the signal was sent by the kernel

            The following are also defined by POSIX/SUSv3, but unfortunately
            not very widely implemented:

                pid         the process id generating the signal
                uid         the uid of the process id generating the signal
                status      exit value or signal for SIGCHLD
                band        band event for SIGPOLL

            A third argument is also passed to the handler, which contains a
            copy of the raw binary contents of the siginfo structure: if a
            system has some non-POSIX fields, this third argument is where
            to unpack() them from.

            Note that not all siginfo values make sense simultaneously (some
            are valid only for certain signals, for example), and not all
            values make sense from Perl perspective, you should to consult
            your system's "sigaction" and possibly also "siginfo"
            documentation.

    siglongjmp
            siglongjmp() is C-specific: use "die" in perlfunc instead.

    sigpending
            Examine signals that are blocked and pending. This uses
            "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the "sigset" argument. Consult your
            system's "sigpending" manpage for details.

            Synopsis:

                    sigpending(sigset)

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    sigprocmask
            Change and/or examine calling process's signal mask. This uses
            "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the "sigset" and "oldsigset"
            arguments. Consult your system's "sigprocmask" manpage for
            details.

            Synopsis:

                    sigprocmask(how, sigset, oldsigset = 0)

            Returns "undef" on failure.

            Note that you can't reliably block or unblock a signal from its
            own signal handler if you're using safe signals. Other signals
            can be blocked or unblocked reliably.

    sigsetjmp
            "sigsetjmp()" is C-specific: use "eval {}" instead, see "eval"
            in perlfunc.

    sigsuspend
            Install a signal mask and suspend process until signal arrives.
            This uses "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the "signal_mask"
            argument. Consult your system's "sigsuspend" manpage for
            details.

            Synopsis:

                    sigsuspend(signal_mask)

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    sin     This is identical to Perl's builtin "sin()" function for
            returning the sine of the numerical argument, see "sin" in
            perlfunc. See also Math::Trig.

    sinh    This is identical to the C function "sinh()" for returning the
            hyperbolic sine of the numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.

    sleep   This is functionally identical to Perl's builtin "sleep()"
            function for suspending the execution of the current for process
            for certain number of seconds, see "sleep" in perlfunc. There is
            one significant difference, however: "POSIX::sleep()" returns
            the number of unslept seconds, while the "CORE::sleep()" returns
            the number of slept seconds.

    sprintf This is similar to Perl's builtin "sprintf()" function for
            returning a string that has the arguments formatted as
            requested, see "sprintf" in perlfunc.

    sqrt    This is identical to Perl's builtin "sqrt()" function. for
            returning the square root of the numerical argument, see "sqrt"
            in perlfunc.

    srand   Give a seed the pseudorandom number generator, see "srand" in
            perlfunc.

    sscanf  sscanf() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see
            perlre.

    stat    This is identical to Perl's builtin "stat()" function for
            returning information about files and directories.

    strcat  strcat() is C-specific, use ".=" instead, see perlop.

    strchr  strchr() is C-specific, see "index" in perlfunc instead.

    strcmp  strcmp() is C-specific, use "eq" or "cmp" instead, see perlop.

    strcoll This is identical to the C function "strcoll()" for collating
            (comparing) strings transformed using the "strxfrm()" function.
            Not really needed since Perl can do this transparently, see
            perllocale.

    strcpy  strcpy() is C-specific, use "=" instead, see perlop.

    strcspn strcspn() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see
            perlre.

    strerror
            Returns the error string for the specified errno. Identical to
            the string form of the $!, see "$ERRNO" in perlvar.

    strftime
            Convert date and time information to string. Returns the string.

            Synopsis:

                    strftime(fmt, sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = -1, yday = -1, isdst = -1)

            The month ("mon"), weekday ("wday"), and yearday ("yday") begin
            at zero. I.e. January is 0, not 1; Sunday is 0, not 1; January
            1st is 0, not 1. The year ("year") is given in years since 1900.
            I.e., the year 1995 is 95; the year 2001 is 101. Consult your
            system's "strftime()" manpage for details about these and the
            other arguments.

            If you want your code to be portable, your format ("fmt")
            argument should use only the conversion specifiers defined by
            the ANSI C standard (C89, to play safe). These are
            "aAbBcdHIjmMpSUwWxXyYZ%". But even then, the results of some of
            the conversion specifiers are non-portable. For example, the
            specifiers "aAbBcpZ" change according to the locale settings of
            the user, and both how to set locales (the locale names) and
            what output to expect are non-standard. The specifier "c"
            changes according to the timezone settings of the user and the
            timezone computation rules of the operating system. The "Z"
            specifier is notoriously unportable since the names of timezones
            are non-standard. Sticking to the numeric specifiers is the
            safest route.

            The given arguments are made consistent as though by calling
            "mktime()" before calling your system's "strftime()" function,
            except that the "isdst" value is not affected.

            The string for Tuesday, December 12, 1995.

                    $str = POSIX::strftime( "%A, %B %d, %Y", 0, 0, 0, 12, 11, 95, 2 );
                    print "$str\n";

    strlen  strlen() is C-specific, use "length()" instead, see "length" in
            perlfunc.

    strncat strncat() is C-specific, use ".=" instead, see perlop.

    strncmp strncmp() is C-specific, use "eq" instead, see perlop.

    strncpy strncpy() is C-specific, use "=" instead, see perlop.

    strpbrk strpbrk() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see
            perlre.

    strrchr strrchr() is C-specific, see "rindex" in perlfunc instead.

    strspn  strspn() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see
            perlre.

    strstr  This is identical to Perl's builtin "index()" function, see
            "index" in perlfunc.

    strtod  String to double translation. Returns the parsed number and the
            number of characters in the unparsed portion of the string.
            Truly POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to indicate a
            translation error, so clear $! before calling strtod. However,
            non-POSIX systems may not check for overflow, and therefore will
            never set $!.

            strtod should respect any POSIX *setlocale()* settings.

            To parse a string $str as a floating point number use

                $! = 0;
                ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtod($str);

            The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid
            input:

                if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || $!) {
                    die "Non-numeric input $str" . ($! ? ": $!\n" : "\n");
                }

            When called in a scalar context strtod returns the parsed
            number.

    strtok  strtok() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see
            perlre, or "split" in perlfunc.

    strtol  String to (long) integer translation. Returns the parsed number
            and the number of characters in the unparsed portion of the
            string. Truly POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to
            indicate a translation error, so clear $! before calling strtol.
            However, non-POSIX systems may not check for overflow, and
            therefore will never set $!.

            strtol should respect any POSIX *setlocale()* settings.

            To parse a string $str as a number in some base $base use

                $! = 0;
                ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtol($str, $base);

            The base should be zero or between 2 and 36, inclusive. When the
            base is zero or omitted strtol will use the string itself to
            determine the base: a leading "0x" or "0X" means hexadecimal; a
            leading "0" means octal; any other leading characters mean
            decimal. Thus, "1234" is parsed as a decimal number, "01234" as
            an octal number, and "0x1234" as a hexadecimal number.

            The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid
            input:

                if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || !$!) {
                    die "Non-numeric input $str" . $! ? ": $!\n" : "\n";
                }

            When called in a scalar context strtol returns the parsed
            number.

    strtoul String to unsigned (long) integer translation. strtoul() is
            identical to strtol() except that strtoul() only parses unsigned
            integers. See "strtol" for details.

            Note: Some vendors supply strtod() and strtol() but not
            strtoul(). Other vendors that do supply strtoul() parse "-1" as
            a valid value.

    strxfrm String transformation. Returns the transformed string.

                    $dst = POSIX::strxfrm( $src );

            Used in conjunction with the "strcoll()" function, see
            "strcoll".

            Not really needed since Perl can do this transparently, see
            perllocale.

    sysconf Retrieves values of system configurable variables.

            The following will get the machine's clock speed.

                    $clock_ticks = POSIX::sysconf( &POSIX::_SC_CLK_TCK );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    system  This is identical to Perl's builtin "system()" function, see
            "system" in perlfunc.

    tan     This is identical to the C function "tan()", returning the
            tangent of the numerical argument. See also Math::Trig.

    tanh    This is identical to the C function "tanh()", returning the
            hyperbolic tangent of the numerical argument. See also
            Math::Trig.

    tcdrain This is similar to the C function "tcdrain()" for draining the
            output queue of its argument stream.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    tcflow  This is similar to the C function "tcflow()" for controlling the
            flow of its argument stream.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    tcflush This is similar to the C function "tcflush()" for flushing the
            I/O buffers of its argument stream.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    tcgetpgrp
            This is identical to the C function "tcgetpgrp()" for returning
            the process group identifier of the foreground process group of
            the controlling terminal.

    tcsendbreak
            This is similar to the C function "tcsendbreak()" for sending a
            break on its argument stream.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    tcsetpgrp
            This is similar to the C function "tcsetpgrp()" for setting the
            process group identifier of the foreground process group of the
            controlling terminal.

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    time    This is identical to Perl's builtin "time()" function for
            returning the number of seconds since the epoch (whatever it is
            for the system), see "time" in perlfunc.

    times   The times() function returns elapsed realtime since some point
            in the past (such as system startup), user and system times for
            this process, and user and system times used by child processes.
            All times are returned in clock ticks.

                ($realtime, $user, $system, $cuser, $csystem) = POSIX::times();

            Note: Perl's builtin "times()" function returns four values,
            measured in seconds.

    tmpfile Use method "IO::File::new_tmpfile()" instead, or see File::Temp.

    tmpnam  Returns a name for a temporary file.

                    $tmpfile = POSIX::tmpnam();

            For security reasons, which are probably detailed in your
            system's documentation for the C library tmpnam() function, this
            interface should not be used; instead see File::Temp.

    tolower This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Consider using the
            "lc()" function, see "lc" in perlfunc, or the equivalent "\L"
            operator inside doublequotish strings.

    toupper This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to
            a single character or to a whole string. Consider using the
            "uc()" function, see "uc" in perlfunc, or the equivalent "\U"
            operator inside doublequotish strings.

    ttyname This is identical to the C function "ttyname()" for returning
            the name of the current terminal.

    tzname  Retrieves the time conversion information from the "tzname"
            variable.

                    POSIX::tzset();
                    ($std, $dst) = POSIX::tzname();

    tzset   This is identical to the C function "tzset()" for setting the
            current timezone based on the environment variable "TZ", to be
            used by "ctime()", "localtime()", "mktime()", and "strftime()"
            functions.

    umask   This is identical to Perl's builtin "umask()" function for
            setting (and querying) the file creation permission mask, see
            "umask" in perlfunc.

    uname   Get name of current operating system.

                    ($sysname, $nodename, $release, $version, $machine) = POSIX::uname();

            Note that the actual meanings of the various fields are not that
            well standardized, do not expect any great portability. The
            $sysname might be the name of the operating system, the
            $nodename might be the name of the host, the $release might be
            the (major) release number of the operating system, the $version
            might be the (minor) release number of the operating system, and
            the $machine might be a hardware identifier. Maybe.

    ungetc  Use method "IO::Handle::ungetc()" instead.

    unlink  This is identical to Perl's builtin "unlink()" function for
            removing files, see "unlink" in perlfunc.

    utime   This is identical to Perl's builtin "utime()" function for
            changing the time stamps of files and directories, see "utime"
            in perlfunc.

    vfprintf
            vfprintf() is C-specific, see "printf" in perlfunc instead.

    vprintf vprintf() is C-specific, see "printf" in perlfunc instead.

    vsprintf
            vsprintf() is C-specific, see "sprintf" in perlfunc instead.

    wait    This is identical to Perl's builtin "wait()" function, see
            "wait" in perlfunc.

    waitpid Wait for a child process to change state. This is identical to
            Perl's builtin "waitpid()" function, see "waitpid" in perlfunc.

                    $pid = POSIX::waitpid( -1, POSIX::WNOHANG );
                    print "status = ", ($? / 256), "\n";

    wcstombs
            This is identical to the C function "wcstombs()". Perl does not
            have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C
            standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

    wctomb  This is identical to the C function "wctomb()". Perl does not
            have any support for the wide and multibyte characters of the C
            standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

    write   Write to a file. This uses file descriptors such as those
            obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

                    $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY );
                    $buf = "hello";
                    $bytes = POSIX::write( $fd, $buf, 5 );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

            See also "syswrite" in perlfunc.

CLASSES
  POSIX::SigAction
    new     Creates a new "POSIX::SigAction" object which corresponds to the
            C "struct sigaction". This object will be destroyed
            automatically when it is no longer needed. The first parameter
            is the handler, a sub reference. The second parameter is a
            "POSIX::SigSet" object, it defaults to the empty set. The third
            parameter contains the "sa_flags", it defaults to 0.

                    $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new(SIGINT, SIGQUIT);
                    $sigaction = POSIX::SigAction->new( \&handler, $sigset, &POSIX::SA_NOCLDSTOP );

            This "POSIX::SigAction" object is intended for use with the
            "POSIX::sigaction()" function.

    handler
    mask
    flags   accessor functions to get/set the values of a SigAction object.

                    $sigset = $sigaction->mask;
                    $sigaction->flags(&POSIX::SA_RESTART);

    safe    accessor function for the "safe signals" flag of a SigAction
            object; see perlipc for general information on safe (a.k.a.
            "deferred") signals. If you wish to handle a signal safely, use
            this accessor to set the "safe" flag in the "POSIX::SigAction"
            object:

                    $sigaction->safe(1);

            You may also examine the "safe" flag on the output action object
            which is filled in when given as the third parameter to
            "POSIX::sigaction()":

                    sigaction(SIGINT, $new_action, $old_action);
                    if ($old_action->safe) {
                        # previous SIGINT handler used safe signals
                    }

  POSIX::SigRt
    %SIGRT  A hash of the POSIX realtime signal handlers. It is an extension
            of the standard %SIG, the $POSIX::SIGRT{SIGRTMIN} is roughly
            equivalent to $SIG{SIGRTMIN}, but the right POSIX moves (see
            below) are made with the POSIX::SigSet and POSIX::sigaction
            instead of accessing the %SIG.

            You can set the %POSIX::SIGRT elements to set the POSIX realtime
            signal handlers, use "delete" and "exists" on the elements, and
            use "scalar" on the %POSIX::SIGRT to find out how many POSIX
            realtime signals there are available (SIGRTMAX - SIGRTMIN + 1,
            the SIGRTMAX is a valid POSIX realtime signal).

            Setting the %SIGRT elements is equivalent to calling this:

              sub new {
                my ($rtsig, $handler, $flags) = @_;
                my $sigset = POSIX::SigSet($rtsig);
                my $sigact = POSIX::SigAction->new($handler, $sigset, $flags);
                sigaction($rtsig, $sigact);
              }

            The flags default to zero, if you want something different you
            can either use "local" on $POSIX::SigRt::SIGACTION_FLAGS, or you
            can derive from POSIX::SigRt and define your own "new()" (the
            tied hash STORE method of the %SIGRT calls "new($rtsig,
            $handler, $SIGACTION_FLAGS)", where the $rtsig ranges from zero
            to SIGRTMAX - SIGRTMIN + 1).

            Just as with any signal, you can use sigaction($rtsig, undef,
            $oa) to retrieve the installed signal handler (or, rather, the
            signal action).

            NOTE: whether POSIX realtime signals really work in your system,
            or whether Perl has been compiled so that it works with them, is
            outside of this discussion.

    SIGRTMIN
            Return the minimum POSIX realtime signal number available, or
            "undef" if no POSIX realtime signals are available.

    SIGRTMAX
            Return the maximum POSIX realtime signal number available, or
            "undef" if no POSIX realtime signals are available.

  POSIX::SigSet
    new     Create a new SigSet object. This object will be destroyed
            automatically when it is no longer needed. Arguments may be
            supplied to initialize the set.

            Create an empty set.

                    $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new;

            Create a set with SIGUSR1.

                    $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 );

    addset  Add a signal to a SigSet object.

                    $sigset->addset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    delset  Remove a signal from the SigSet object.

                    $sigset->delset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    emptyset
            Initialize the SigSet object to be empty.

                    $sigset->emptyset();

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    fillset Initialize the SigSet object to include all signals.

                    $sigset->fillset();

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    ismember
            Tests the SigSet object to see if it contains a specific signal.

                    if( $sigset->ismember( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 ) ){
                            print "contains SIGUSR1\n";
                    }

  POSIX::Termios
    new     Create a new Termios object. This object will be destroyed
            automatically when it is no longer needed. A Termios object
            corresponds to the termios C struct. new() mallocs a new one,
            getattr() fills it from a file descriptor, and setattr() sets a
            file descriptor's parameters to match Termios' contents.

                    $termios = POSIX::Termios->new;

    getattr Get terminal control attributes.

            Obtain the attributes for stdin.

                    $termios->getattr( 0 ) # Recommended for clarity.
                    $termios->getattr()

            Obtain the attributes for stdout.

                    $termios->getattr( 1 )

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    getcc   Retrieve a value from the c_cc field of a termios object. The
            c_cc field is an array so an index must be specified.

                    $c_cc[1] = $termios->getcc(1);

    getcflag
            Retrieve the c_cflag field of a termios object.

                    $c_cflag = $termios->getcflag;

    getiflag
            Retrieve the c_iflag field of a termios object.

                    $c_iflag = $termios->getiflag;

    getispeed
            Retrieve the input baud rate.

                    $ispeed = $termios->getispeed;

    getlflag
            Retrieve the c_lflag field of a termios object.

                    $c_lflag = $termios->getlflag;

    getoflag
            Retrieve the c_oflag field of a termios object.

                    $c_oflag = $termios->getoflag;

    getospeed
            Retrieve the output baud rate.

                    $ospeed = $termios->getospeed;

    setattr Set terminal control attributes.

            Set attributes immediately for stdout.

                    $termios->setattr( 1, &POSIX::TCSANOW );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    setcc   Set a value in the c_cc field of a termios object. The c_cc
            field is an array so an index must be specified.

                    $termios->setcc( &POSIX::VEOF, 1 );

    setcflag
            Set the c_cflag field of a termios object.

                    $termios->setcflag( $c_cflag | &POSIX::CLOCAL );

    setiflag
            Set the c_iflag field of a termios object.

                    $termios->setiflag( $c_iflag | &POSIX::BRKINT );

    setispeed
            Set the input baud rate.

                    $termios->setispeed( &POSIX::B9600 );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    setlflag
            Set the c_lflag field of a termios object.

                    $termios->setlflag( $c_lflag | &POSIX::ECHO );

    setoflag
            Set the c_oflag field of a termios object.

                    $termios->setoflag( $c_oflag | &POSIX::OPOST );

    setospeed
            Set the output baud rate.

                    $termios->setospeed( &POSIX::B9600 );

            Returns "undef" on failure.

    Baud rate values
            B38400 B75 B200 B134 B300 B1800 B150 B0 B19200 B1200 B9600 B600
            B4800 B50 B2400 B110

    Terminal interface values
            TCSADRAIN TCSANOW TCOON TCIOFLUSH TCOFLUSH TCION TCIFLUSH
            TCSAFLUSH TCIOFF TCOOFF

    c_cc field values
            VEOF VEOL VERASE VINTR VKILL VQUIT VSUSP VSTART VSTOP VMIN VTIME
            NCCS

    c_cflag field values
            CLOCAL CREAD CSIZE CS5 CS6 CS7 CS8 CSTOPB HUPCL PARENB PARODD

    c_iflag field values
            BRKINT ICRNL IGNBRK IGNCR IGNPAR INLCR INPCK ISTRIP IXOFF IXON
            PARMRK

    c_lflag field values
            ECHO ECHOE ECHOK ECHONL ICANON IEXTEN ISIG NOFLSH TOSTOP

    c_oflag field values
            OPOST

PATHNAME CONSTANTS
    Constants
            _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED _PC_LINK_MAX _PC_MAX_CANON _PC_MAX_INPUT
            _PC_NAME_MAX _PC_NO_TRUNC _PC_PATH_MAX _PC_PIPE_BUF _PC_VDISABLE

POSIX CONSTANTS
    Constants
            _POSIX_ARG_MAX _POSIX_CHILD_MAX _POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED
            _POSIX_JOB_CONTROL _POSIX_LINK_MAX _POSIX_MAX_CANON
            _POSIX_MAX_INPUT _POSIX_NAME_MAX _POSIX_NGROUPS_MAX
            _POSIX_NO_TRUNC _POSIX_OPEN_MAX _POSIX_PATH_MAX _POSIX_PIPE_BUF
            _POSIX_SAVED_IDS _POSIX_SSIZE_MAX _POSIX_STREAM_MAX
            _POSIX_TZNAME_MAX _POSIX_VDISABLE _POSIX_VERSION

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
    Constants
            _SC_ARG_MAX _SC_CHILD_MAX _SC_CLK_TCK _SC_JOB_CONTROL
            _SC_NGROUPS_MAX _SC_OPEN_MAX _SC_PAGESIZE _SC_SAVED_IDS
            _SC_STREAM_MAX _SC_TZNAME_MAX _SC_VERSION

ERRNO
    Constants
            E2BIG EACCES EADDRINUSE EADDRNOTAVAIL EAFNOSUPPORT EAGAIN
            EALREADY EBADF EBUSY ECHILD ECONNABORTED ECONNREFUSED ECONNRESET
            EDEADLK EDESTADDRREQ EDOM EDQUOT EEXIST EFAULT EFBIG EHOSTDOWN
            EHOSTUNREACH EINPROGRESS EINTR EINVAL EIO EISCONN EISDIR ELOOP
            EMFILE EMLINK EMSGSIZE ENAMETOOLONG ENETDOWN ENETRESET
            ENETUNREACH ENFILE ENOBUFS ENODEV ENOENT ENOEXEC ENOLCK ENOMEM
            ENOPROTOOPT ENOSPC ENOSYS ENOTBLK ENOTCONN ENOTDIR ENOTEMPTY
            ENOTSOCK ENOTTY ENXIO EOPNOTSUPP EPERM EPFNOSUPPORT EPIPE
            EPROCLIM EPROTONOSUPPORT EPROTOTYPE ERANGE EREMOTE ERESTART
            EROFS ESHUTDOWN ESOCKTNOSUPPORT ESPIPE ESRCH ESTALE ETIMEDOUT
            ETOOMANYREFS ETXTBSY EUSERS EWOULDBLOCK EXDEV

FCNTL
    Constants
            FD_CLOEXEC F_DUPFD F_GETFD F_GETFL F_GETLK F_OK F_RDLCK F_SETFD
            F_SETFL F_SETLK F_SETLKW F_UNLCK F_WRLCK O_ACCMODE O_APPEND
            O_CREAT O_EXCL O_NOCTTY O_NONBLOCK O_RDONLY O_RDWR O_TRUNC
            O_WRONLY

FLOAT
    Constants
            DBL_DIG DBL_EPSILON DBL_MANT_DIG DBL_MAX DBL_MAX_10_EXP
            DBL_MAX_EXP DBL_MIN DBL_MIN_10_EXP DBL_MIN_EXP FLT_DIG
            FLT_EPSILON FLT_MANT_DIG FLT_MAX FLT_MAX_10_EXP FLT_MAX_EXP
            FLT_MIN FLT_MIN_10_EXP FLT_MIN_EXP FLT_RADIX FLT_ROUNDS LDBL_DIG
            LDBL_EPSILON LDBL_MANT_DIG LDBL_MAX LDBL_MAX_10_EXP LDBL_MAX_EXP
            LDBL_MIN LDBL_MIN_10_EXP LDBL_MIN_EXP

LIMITS
    Constants
            ARG_MAX CHAR_BIT CHAR_MAX CHAR_MIN CHILD_MAX INT_MAX INT_MIN
            LINK_MAX LONG_MAX LONG_MIN MAX_CANON MAX_INPUT MB_LEN_MAX
            NAME_MAX NGROUPS_MAX OPEN_MAX PATH_MAX PIPE_BUF SCHAR_MAX
            SCHAR_MIN SHRT_MAX SHRT_MIN SSIZE_MAX STREAM_MAX TZNAME_MAX
            UCHAR_MAX UINT_MAX ULONG_MAX USHRT_MAX

LOCALE
    Constants
            LC_ALL LC_COLLATE LC_CTYPE LC_MONETARY LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME

MATH
    Constants
            HUGE_VAL

SIGNAL
    Constants
            SA_NOCLDSTOP SA_NOCLDWAIT SA_NODEFER SA_ONSTACK SA_RESETHAND
            SA_RESTART SA_SIGINFO SIGABRT SIGALRM SIGCHLD SIGCONT SIGFPE
            SIGHUP SIGILL SIGINT SIGKILL SIGPIPE SIGQUIT SIGSEGV SIGSTOP
            SIGTERM SIGTSTP SIGTTIN SIGTTOU SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2 SIG_BLOCK
            SIG_DFL SIG_ERR SIG_IGN SIG_SETMASK SIG_UNBLOCK

STAT
    Constants
            S_IRGRP S_IROTH S_IRUSR S_IRWXG S_IRWXO S_IRWXU S_ISGID S_ISUID
            S_IWGRP S_IWOTH S_IWUSR S_IXGRP S_IXOTH S_IXUSR

    Macros  S_ISBLK S_ISCHR S_ISDIR S_ISFIFO S_ISREG

STDLIB
    Constants
            EXIT_FAILURE EXIT_SUCCESS MB_CUR_MAX RAND_MAX

STDIO
    Constants
            BUFSIZ EOF FILENAME_MAX L_ctermid L_cuserid L_tmpname TMP_MAX

TIME
    Constants
            CLK_TCK CLOCKS_PER_SEC

UNISTD
    Constants
            R_OK SEEK_CUR SEEK_END SEEK_SET STDIN_FILENO STDOUT_FILENO
            STDERR_FILENO W_OK X_OK

WAIT
    Constants
            WNOHANG WUNTRACED

            WNOHANG         Do not suspend the calling process until a child
                            process changes state but instead return
                            immediately.

            WUNTRACED       Catch stopped child processes.

    Macros  WIFEXITED WEXITSTATUS WIFSIGNALED WTERMSIG WIFSTOPPED WSTOPSIG

            WIFEXITED       WIFEXITED(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}) returns true
                            if the child process exited normally ("exit()"
                            or by falling off the end of "main()")

            WEXITSTATUS     WEXITSTATUS(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}) returns the
                            normal exit status of the child process (only
                            meaningful if WIFEXITED(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE})
                            is true)

            WIFSIGNALED     WIFSIGNALED(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}) returns true
                            if the child process terminated because of a
                            signal

            WTERMSIG        WTERMSIG(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}) returns the
                            signal the child process terminated for (only
                            meaningful if
                            WIFSIGNALED(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}) is true)

            WIFSTOPPED      WIFSTOPPED(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}) returns true
                            if the child process is currently stopped (can
                            happen only if you specified the WUNTRACED flag
                            to waitpid())

            WSTOPSIG        WSTOPSIG(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}) returns the
                            signal the child process was stopped for (only
                            meaningful if WIFSTOPPED(${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE})
                            is true)



Die rein persönlichen Zwecken dienende Seite verwendet funktionsbedingt einen Session-Cookie. Datenschutzerklärung: Auf den für diese Domäne installierten Seiten werden grundsätzlich keine personenbezogenen Daten erhoben. Das Loggen der Zugriffe mit Ihrer Remote Adresse erfolgt beim Provider soweit das technisch erforderlich ist. @: Rolf Rost, Am Stadtgaben 27, 55276 Oppenheim, nmq​rstx-18­@yahoo.de